Understanding how current, charge and power are calculated is essential to mastering GCSE Physics/Science, especially in electrical circuits. In our daily lives, we have a diverse range of electrical appliances, each designed to convert electrical energy into various forms of energy. However, not all appliances function with the same level of efficiency.

So, let's start with the basics. This topic (quiz) covers the fundamental concepts of electricity, including electric current, charge, and power. Here is an explanation of each concept, along with examples.

## Electrical Current

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Electric Current: Electric current is the flow of electric charge through a conductor. It is an important concept in physics and is measured in amperes (A), commonly shortened to "amps." The symbol for electric current is I, and it is measured using a device called an ammeter. The direction of electric current is defined as the direction of the flow of positive charges, even though the negatively charged electrons are moving.

Example: suppose we connect a battery to a circuit containing a light bulb. In that case, the battery will create a potential difference, which causes the electrons to flow from the battery's negative terminal to the positive terminal, resulting in the electric current.

Current is defined as the amount of charge passing through a conductor in a unit of time. The flow of electric current occurs when there is a potential difference (voltage) across a conductor, which drives the movement of electric charge. The greater the voltage across the conductor, the greater the current flowing through it.

One ampere (A) is equivalent to one coulomb (C) of electric charge passing through a given point in a circuit in one second. This means that if a circuit has a current of 1 A, it is carrying a charge of 1 coulomb per second.

For example, if a circuit carries a current of 2 A for 10 seconds, it is carrying a total charge of:
Q = I x t
Q = 2 A x 10 s
Q = 20 C

## Electric Charge

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Charge: Electric charge is a fundamental property of matter. It is either positive or negative and is measured in Coulombs (C). The charge on an object is determined by its number of electrons. Electrons have a negative charge, and protons have a positive charge. Like charges repel, and unlike charges attract.

Example: if we rub a plastic comb on a piece of cloth, the comb will become negatively charged because it gains electrons from the cloth. If we then hold the negatively charged comb near a stream of water, the water stream will be attracted to the comb because the water has a positive charge.

Electricity is a fundamental force of nature that is essential to modern life. At its most basic level, electricity is the flow of electrons through a material. Electrons are subatomic particles that carry a negative electrical charge. When a material is conductive, it allows electrons to flow freely through it, creating an electric current.

While electrons carry only a tiny amount of electrical charge, their numbers are massive. This is because electrons are extremely tiny particles, with a mass that is thousands of times smaller than that of a proton or neutron. So, even though each electron carries a small amount of charge, the sheer number of electrons in motion in a working circuit can result in a significant overall charge flow.

The coulomb is the unit of electrical charge in the International System of Units (SI). One coulomb represents the negative of the charge of 6.24 × 1018 electrons. This means that a material with a net charge of 1 coulomb contains 6.24 × 1018 more electrons than protons.

A coulomb is a convenient unit of measurement for the electrical charge because it avoids the need to use the very large numbers involved in describing the charges on individual electrons.