Cells are the basic unit of life, and they are found in all living organisms, from single-celled bacteria to complex multicellular organisms like humans and trees. They are like tiny factories that work together to keep the organism alive and functioning.

The study of cells is performed using several techniques, such as cell culture, various types of microscopy, and cell fractionation. These have allowed for and are currently being used for discoveries and research on how cells function, ultimately giving insight into understanding larger organisms. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences while also being essential for research in biomedical fields such as cancer and other diseases.

Cell biology encompasses both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It can be divided into many sub-topics, including the study of cell metabolism, cell communication, cell cycle, biochemistry, and cell composition.

There are two main types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Prokaryotic cells are found in bacteria and archaea, and they do not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles. On the other hand, Eukaryotic cells are found in plants, animals, fungi, and protists. They have a true nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles carrying specific functions.

The nucleus is the cell's control centre, and it contains the DNA, which includes the genetic instructions for the cell. For example, the DNA tells the cell what proteins to make and when to make them. A double membrane surrounds the nucleus called the nuclear envelope, which separates it from the rest of the cell.
The cytoplasm is the gel-like substance that fills the cell and surrounds the organelles. It contains all the necessary chemicals for the cell to function, such as enzymes and other proteins.

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