Key Takeaways

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

  1. Know that mitosis is the process by which a cell duplicates its genetic material and divides into two new cells.
  2. Learn that Chromosomes are composed of DNA and protein and are found in the cell Nucleus. They carry the genes that code for all your inherited traits, like eye colour or hair colour..
  3. In body cells, chromosomes are usually found in pairs. They carry the genes that make us who we are.
  4. Know that Chromosomes are made of DNA and carry genes. Genes make up the code for all the different characteristics of an organism.




1. Mitosis

There are certain parts of our body that are able to make copies of themselves, so that we are able to grow or repair any tissue that has been damaged. The mitosis process produces two identical diploid cells for the purpose of growth and repair after cell division.

Mitosis is the process in which a eukaryotic cell nucleus splits in two, followed by division of the parent cell into two daughter cells. The word "mitosis" means "threads," and it refers to the threadlike appearance of chromosomes as the cell prepares to divide.

As we know, Mitosis is a type of cell division in which a diploid body cell copies itself and finally divides into two identical diploid daughter cells. The daughter cells are clones of each other. Every base pair of their DNA is identical.

The mitosis process occurs naturally in the human body to enable the repair or replace damaged tissue and to grow the organism.‍



2. The cell cycle

Mitosis is the stage in the cell cycle when the cell divides into two. Mitosis occurs when a cell reproduces itself by splitting into two identical offspring to form two new cells.

Cell Cycle and Mitosis Diagram

Body cells divide in order to produce new cells, which is part of the cell cycle. The cycle starts with cell division and goes on until this same type of division creates or producing two identical cells - two organisms with identical DNA.

Multicellular organisms use mitosis to grow and develop or replace cells that have been damaged.



3. What happens in the cell cycle?

The growth and replication stage

Cells go through the cell cycle to produce more cells. Here is a simple diagram of the cell cycle which shows a cell at the growth and replication stage.

Cell Cycle Growth and Replication Stage

Here are the steps involved in the cell cycle:

When a cell is not dividing, its DNA is spreading out in long strings all over the place. In order for a cell to divide, it has to grow and increase the number of subcellular structures such as mitochondria and ribosomes. Then, it duplicates its DNA so that for every new cell, there is a copy of each chromosome. During the replication process, the DNA is copied and chromosomes take on the shape of an X. The chromosomes are made up of 'arms' that act exactly like each other. The cell is now ready for mitosis to begin...


The mitosis stage

At the centre of the cell, chromosomes are lined up, and cell fibers are pulling them apart. Each chromosome consists of two arms that are positioned at the opposite end of the cell. There are membranes surrounding each set of chromosomes in a cell. They become the nuclei of the two new cells that result from the division of the nucleus. Finally, the cytoplasm and the cell membrane are divided.

Mitosis Process Diagram
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